Climate change is a multi-faceted global issue, and the Arctic region is one of the most vulnerable areas currently at risk from its detrimental effects. The Arctic regulates the Earth’s climate, and therefore Arctic environmental protection is necessary dialogue, which needs to be explored in international relations. It is a global issue of the highest importance. This thesis highlights the role of several Arctic players, including the Arctic Council, the leading international forum in Arctic diplomatic relations. This leads into an examination of the work that the United Nations has accomplished in respect to climate change and eventually the Arctic policy of two key global powers, the European Union and the United States, is compared. Their divergent perspectives are clear; the EU is a collective political and economic union with no distinct Arctic state of its own, while the U.S. is an independent Arctic nation with more geopolitical and territorial stake in the region. EU and U.S. policy, interests, cooperation and challenges in the Arctic will be explored. Some important key topics include the EU’s recent 2016 Arctic Policy, the Finnish Chairmanship of the Arctic Council, divisive U.S. climate change and energy politics, and U.S. tendency to reject collective, international agreements. In the end, each of their stances on environmental protection are what is truly of importance. Climate change and the Arctic are scientifically linked, and therefore Arctic environmental protection is crucial in the climate change debate. It remains to be seen which of these world leaders will rise up to lead the fight for Arctic protection in the face of its deterioration, and which will succumb to only strategic energy and security interests. One thing is certain: international cooperation in the Arctic is fundamental for its survival in the future.